Common Book Part 2: The Not So Common

Rhetorical Analysis Reflection

For my rhetorical analysis I decided to analysis the speech Obama gave during his final state of the union address. The main problem was that he failed to mention the the 10 American soldiers that were captured by Israel forces after “floating” into their territory. I was watching CNN right before the speech, that is how I learned about the captures. I was expecting Obama start his speech with a worried tone, maybe even optimistic. Obama instead started off with a joke in a speech. Right then and there I knew he wasn’t going to mention the problem, and I knew he was going to get a lot of negative comments about this, in which I mentioned in my paper. Overall, I think I covered the issue and analysis pretty well. The only issue I had was that because there was no specific answer and Obama did not address the question, I did not have a lot of information to cover. I felt like maybe because it wasn’t a largely publicized issue I lacked in length. Maybe he will address it in his own biography he publishes in 2 years. Till then I am curious about why.

Feel-good words

 Feel good words are good for our inspiration boards, but bad for for advertisers. That is how they get us. For example, here is an ad in which has a lady looking flawless while she changes her baby’s diaper.

diesel-baby-live-fast

 

When I see the ad I see how she is multitasking. I see my self as a successful multitasker, so I think whoa this ad is for someone like me. I can do all these things while looking flawless. If I had the money I would buy from that brand, but I do not nor want to. Feel good words make us a target in advertising.

Chapter 18 Quote Explication 

“If an opponent uses an idiom or cliché … you can win the heart of an intelligent audience by giving the expression a twist” (206)

Here Heinrichs talks about a twist, a cliché twist which means when one concedes your opponents cliché and then messes it up deliberately. The following example will show how:

Ex. Opponent: Let’s not pour the baby out with the bathwater.

You: No lets just pull the plug.

This example helped me better understand the concept. The response agrees and contradicts the opponent at the same time. Heinrichs describes different tools to do this.

You can use:

Metonymy: using a characteristic to describe the whole

Synecdoche: Swapping one thing for a collection

Surprise Ending: paraprosdokian

Chapter 23 Quote Explication

“The ancients had a name for it: Kairos” (261)

Heinrich here talks about one of the most important aspects of rhetoric, kairos. Kairos is the rhetorical ability to seize the persuasive moment. One should know the circumstances when trying to convince someone. For example, when I wanted to have a birthday surprise for my boyfriend I made sure to make him think we were going to a fancy dinner, not that his family and I planned a surprise birthday party. I had to use my rhetoric magic when his family messaged me they needed 30 minutes more (we were just about to leave). I could have simply said I needed something from the store or to lay down and watch a movie. Instead, I did what he knew would happen. I changed my outfit for about 18 times. I wasn’t liking this dress or the other one. I made him think nothing was up because I made sure to seize the occasion. This was my moment spotter (uncertain moods and beliefs –when minds are already beginning to change –signal a persuadable moment.) When you think of kairos think of SEIZE THE OCCASION, and if you do, you will win the conversation.

Chapter 25 Quote Explication

“Division can actually help …” (285)

Division can actually help. I and other would think that if you are trying to persuade someone and they start dividing on the issue, it means you are doing bad. On the contrary, Heinrichs writes that it can help your ethos if you use reluctant conclusion. Reluctant conclusion which means, “when the audience seems against you, pretend that you came to your decision reluctantly.” For example, if I am arguing with someone about how I think there should be an immigration reform, I wont stay on the fact that immigrants just want a better life, instead I should go broad with, humans have the right to better their lives no matter where they are, right? Now it is broad and if one goes against my statement, they will look bad in a debate.

Persuasive Talk/ Essay Invention

 The invention of the essay was pretty interesting. I say this because obviously I am against the “wall”, so I figured it would be easy to support my ideas. Now my ideas may conflict with reality and statistics. For example, I personally think that having DACA and DAPA (temporary immigration reforms) would be beneficial not only to the immigrants, but to Americans because they would create for jobs to help process the thousands of files. To my surprise, it would not be beneficial to the job industry, well not as much as I would have thought. The essay put my and Sarafina’s opinions to the test, did we have information to back them up or were they just what we thought? It was much harder to try to justify and create the counterargument because while typing it I was just rejecting their ideas.

As for the talk, I think it is easily persuadable. The truth is the “wall” is not doable not only because it would wrong, but because it is too expensive as well.

Observe Persuasive Attempt

Oooo. Once I say the PowerPoint that talked about how the free education system Bernie Sanders proposed I wanted to grab some popcorn. See, the issue with such topics is that, it can be tricky. There are some good points against, honestly. But according to the world, if you disagree with Bernie, you might as well be related to Donald Trump. Now, yes I was active in the persuasive attempt done by the duo, but I am not totally against them.  Their arguments were flawed. I could easily find points that I can question, and if you are trying to persuade me I need to be speechless and defenseless. When talking about a topic that causes so much debate one should have all counterarguments thought out, because if not you look like you do not know what you are talking about. Obviously, this was a class project so she didn’t have to know everything. But if she would have, she would have probably been successful with her persuasion, not because she would change people’s mind but because she would question their opinions.

Advertising: Is it manipulation? CHOICE

Talking about persuasion I can not forget to think about ads. In all reality ads are made to help you make a choice, or to manipulate you? It seems like everyone has different opinions, my boyfriend thinks it is manipulation, but my marketing professor says it’s a way helping the customer make a choice. I do remember learning about subliminal messages. My marketing professor talked about how there are no such things as subliminal messages. Google defines subliminal as, “below the threshold of sensation or consciousness.” So if something is below the conscious can it still manipulate us? I believe not. If you do not know something is there, it has no affect on you. I could be wrong; I want to work in advertising so maybe my opinion is flawed. Regardless, I can never stop thinking if I am an unethical person because I enjoy the art of advertising. Is there anything wrong with being good at persuasion? I will never know. Because according to society with you can persuade really well, you are manipulative.

Things I learned about Donald Trump and his immigration stance: A list of what he thinks (by what he thinks I mean what his Public Relations managers told him he should believe in) CHOICE

  • Trump’s immigration policy revolves around three basic principles of a nation without borders is not a nation, a nation without laws is not a nation, and a nation that does not serve its own citizens is not a nation.
  • Plan includes impounding all remittance payments derived from illegal wages, increasing fees not only on temporary visas issued to Mexican CEO’s and diplomats, but also on all border crossing cards, on all NAFTA worker visas from Mexico, and at ports of entry to the United States from Mexico.
  • He claims that he wants everyone to come in legally to the United States. Maybe he would be the only person to actually implement an immigration reform, which is what his plan basically is, he just doesn’t use that wording.

 This is all specific information I learned from Trump, finally something more intellectual than “my hands are not small.” Still I think he did not come up with this.

Opinion On the Book CHOICE

Overall, one of the things I believe is essential to a student in a class is the strength of the book used in class. I personally enjoyed the book, I think it terms of vocabulary it was very strong and it used examples that we can encounter in our daily lives. I even bought the book instead of renting it! I think it is easy to say that this is definitely one of my favorite textbook from a class. At some times I felt it was a bit childish with its examples, but overall I enjoyed it. Although, sometimes it would over explain something. It would cover a topic in one chapter and then in 7 chapters later bring it up again as if it was something new. That I did not like.

Brain Map

The 6-7 parts of the brain are and they do the following:

Sensory Complex: This part draws from your five senses and then uses that to interpret information.

Somatosensory Cortex: This part of the brain senses pain and pleasure.

Auditory Cortex: This part of the brain helps you process audio.

Motor Cortex: This part of the brain helps you learn and control motor skills.

Broca’s Area: This part of the brain is responsible for speech production, language comprehension, interpreting the actions of others and your speech associated gestures.

Pre Frontal Cortex: This part of the brain controls your personality, including how you behave in social situations.

Frontal Lobes: This part of the brain is where problem solving, memory, language, judgement and impulse control occur.

 

How can you train and focus these areas: 

Sensory Complex:

Somatosensory Cortex:

Auditory Cortex:

Motor Cortex:

Broca’s Area:

Pre Frontal Cortex:

Frontal Lobes:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Learning Style

  1. How accurate do you think this reflects your learning style(s)?

I think it kinda does represent my learning style. I say this because I consider myself to be more of a tactile learner than an auditory one. According to the survey I am more of an auditory learner than a tactile one. It was spot on with the visual percentage.

Below are the scores:

  • Auditory: 35%
  • Visual: 50%
  • Tactile: 15%
  1. Can you give some examples from your current or last semester that reflect these learning styles?

An example would be, this semester I am taking a graphic design class. We are currently using a program named InDesign. I have not had experience with the program before. The teacher would tell us what to do, but I understood better when he showed us on the screen or when I had to do a tutorial.

  1. Have you always identified with these learning styles? Why or why not? Have they changed?

I have. Since I was smaller, I would always ask my mom to repeat the tasks that need to be done.

Write a one-two paragraph summary of your impressions of today’s activities. What do you believe is the best way to learn and why?

My impression of today’s activities was interesting. I like how I took this quiz on what my learning style is to only find out that the whole concept was a myth. There is not learning style category we truly belong to. Although, at first i did question the article, in the end I did believe what it had said. I had read an article before stating that the whole “math person” idea was also a myth.

Commonplace Thoughts

What is Rhetoric?

“Art of Persuasion”

Plato thinks, “[Rhetoric] is the “art of enchanting the soul.” (The art of winning the soul by discourse.)” Richard Weaver thinks, “Rhetoric is that “’which creates an informed appetition for the good.’” To me rhetoric is described in three words, art of persuasion. Now whether rhetoric can be used for good or bad, that is a different story, but I believe it has a certain type of beauty to it. For now, because of the political scandal Trump is making we are focusing a lot more on the rhetoric done in politics. Trump is using a negative rhetoric for example. He bashes on Muslims, Mexicans, because he believes it? Well I think not, but rather to rile up the people who do, the people who tend to have those ideas. This is important because his rhetoric is having a huge influence on people. Now it seems is so acceptable to carry your confederate flag or racist item because you’re going to a Donald Trump Rally.

 

Aristotle

Notes on Aristotle’s Rhetoric 

  • Aristotle’s
    “On Rhetoric”
  • Book 3: Delivery, Style, and Arrangement

Introduction to Book 3

  • Originally book 3 was a separate work from the first two books.
    • It is speculated to have been written in the 350s B.C.E

Ch. 1: Introduction

  • Three matters of speech
  • Delivery of a speech

 Ch. 2: Lexis or style

  • Poetic style
  • The use of nouns and verbs
  • Metaphors

Chapter 3: Frigidities

  • Definition of frigidities
  • Frigidities come about in four different ways

Chapter 4:

  • Simile
  • “Characteristic poetic device”
  • Expansion of a metaphor
  • Chapter 5: Grammatical Correctness
  • Clarity not correctness
  • To speak “Good” Greek
  • The lack of correctness

Ch. 6 – Onkos and Syntomia

  • Onkos – Expansiveness
    • Metaphors, definition as the word
  • Syntomia – Conciseness
    • Name or word rather than definition, no conjunctions

Ch. 7 – Lexis

  • “The lexis will be appropriate if it expresses emotion and character and is proportional to the subject matter,” (Aristotle, 210)
    • Using style accordingly
    • Credibility, Emotion
    • Genus and moral state important to wording
      • The character of the speaker

Ch. 8 – Rhythm

“The form of the language should be neither metrical nor unrhythmical. The former is unpersuasive (for it seems to have been consciously shaped) and at the same time also diverts attention,” (212)

“Thus, speech should have rhythm but not meter; for the latter will be a poem. The rhythm should not be exact. This will be achieved if it is [regular] only up to a point,” (212)

Ch. 9 – Periodic Style

“I call a period an expression having a beginning and an end in itself and a magnitude easily taken in at a glance,” (215)

  • Prose as “stung-on” or compact (periodic)
  • Simple division or one with multiple parts
  • Antithesis: contrast within a period

Ch.10 – Metaphors

“…for things should be seen as being done rather than as going to be done. [To achieve urbanity in style] one should thus aim at three things: metaphor, antithesis, actualization [energeia],” (219)

“Metaphor most brings about learning,” (218)

Ch. 11 – Defamiliarize Language

“Hyperboles are adolescent; for they exhibit vehemence… Thus, it is inappropriate for an older man to speak [in hyperbole].” (226)

  • Similes, proverbs, and hyperboles

Ch. 12 – Speaking V. Writing

  • Each kind of rhetoric has its own style
  • logographers (speech writers)
  • Stylistic differences in writing and speaking
  • “Written style is most exact; the agonistic style is very much a matter of delivery. Of the latter there are two species; for one form is ethical, the other emotional” (227)

Chapters 13-16

  • Necessary two parts for a speech (specific):
    1) State the concerning subject.
    2) Demonstrate the argument
  • Necessary parts for a judicial speech:
    1) Proposition
    2) Proof
  • Necessary for EVERY speech:
    1) Introduction
    2) Proposition
    3) Proof
    4) Conclusion

Chapters 13-16

  • Prooimion– beginning of speech; introduction. *can be used for poetry and/or music
  • Epideictic Prooemia– drawn for praises; “You are worthy of the admiration of many, o men of Greece.”
  • Judicial Prooemia– clear and concise; able to relate to the court in a convincing manner.
  • Deliberative Prooemia– used to support the judicial; concerned with what the court should know at said time.

Chapters 13-16

  • Being posed with a prejudicial attack requires a refute either by suspicion or direct denial.
  • In court, the accuser poses the defendant in a bad light pointing to them negatively. The defendant has the motive to disprove.
  • Narratives in speech are not common but if the audience is unfamiliar with a subject, it should be narrated for comprehension.
    *explaining to the court what asphyxiation means & giving an example.

Chapter 17: The Pistis, or Proof, as Part of an Oration

  • Proofs = logically valid.
  • When one person claims something was done and another denies it, one is lying.
  • Paradigms are most appropriate to deliberative oratory.
  • Enthymemes

-Do not seek in everything

-Don’t mix with pathos

-Don’t seek when speech is being “ethical”

  • Maxims

-in a narration and in a proof

Chapter 18: Erōtēsis, or Interrogation

  • Interrogation
  • Self-evident
  • Paradoxical
  • Sophisticated answer
  • Amphibolies
  • Laughter

Chapter 19:The Epilogos, or Conclusion

  • Cause the audience to be in favor the speaker and not the opponent
  • Amplify or minimizing
  • Lead the hearer into emotional reactions
  • Give a reminder of the chief points in the argument
  • Mention of what these things are and why
  • Asyndeton is appropriate for the end of the discourse

Major Rhetoricians

Major Rhetoricians Notes:

—Quintilian 

—Born: approx 35-40 AD in Calahorra, Spain.

—Died: 100 AD in Rome.

—Sent to Rome as a young man to study rhetoric and oratory.

—Served under Roman Emperor Galba as teacher of speaking and legal proceedings.
(Bizzell, 112)

—Biography of Marcus Fabius Quintilian

—Opened a school of oratory and rhetoric in Rome under the rule of Domitian.

—Became leading Roman educator of rhetoric under Vespasian.

—After years of teaching the art of speech and persuasion, he wrote a treatise on rhetoric, Institutio Oratoria.

—Rhetoric was valuable when the rhetor was virtuous.
(Bizzell,119)

—Institutio Oratoria

—Often seen as an imitator of Cicero.

—Inventio-finding the argument

—Dispositio– ordering the argument

—Elocutio– explicating the argument

—Memoria– rehearsing the argument

—Actio– presenting the argument
St. Augustine 

November 13, 354 – August 28, 430

Patricius (Pagan) Monica (Christian)

“Found Church’s teachings and practices unsatisfactory” (Reynolds 1)

Taught rhetoric at Carthage

Illegitimate son Adeodatus – 373

Taught rhetoric at Milan – 383

Baptized by St. Ambrose – 387

Converted to Christianity at age 32

Bishop – 396-430

Major Works

Confessions – AD 397-401

Infancy to adulthood

Flaming Heart

Transformative

The City of God – AD 412-426

City of Man/City of Heaven, Church, State

Moral direction/God’s plan

Handbook on Faith, Hope, and Love (Enchiridion) – AD 421-422

1 Corinthians 13

“Proper way to worship God” (Aurelius 15)

Major Works Continued

On the Trinity – AD 399-419

Mystery of the Trinity

Human mind example

Soliloquies – AD 386-87

Earliest book

Inner dialogue

Self-knowledge/personal soul

Significance

Taught Rhetoric

Defend what is both true and false

Speaking thoughts aloud

Influential

Theology

Christian philosophy

Discussion/Logic

Isocrates

 

Isocrates (436–338 BC) was one of five children of Theodorus of Erchia, a flute manufacturer, and his wife Heduto.

In 404, during the reign of the “Thirty Tyrants,” Isocrates fled to the island of Chios,

There he operated a small school of rhetoric.

 

392 B.C. he founded his famous school, near the Lyceum.

From the word Panegyric which are public speeches typically given at festivals

Isocrates’ approved of these festivals because they allowed for people to gather together and celebrate peace and praise. These festivals celebrated Greek history and culture (Isocrates and Papillon)

The speech is subdivided into two sections:

  1. Praise to the glory of Athens

– Athens is superior and motivates the people of Athens to reclaim dominance of the area.

  1. His advice

– He encourages a unified front and promotes everyone to stand together.

– They all have the same enemy – Sparta (who had current dominance at the time)

This was one of his most famous speeches because of his emphasis to forget about the hostilities that the Athenians had against each other and focus on unity in order to defeat the Barbarians (Isocrates and Papillon).

 

Major Contribution: ethics in rhetoric!

Cicero

 

About Marcus Tullius Cicero (and historical context)

Born in 106 B.C.E.

Murdered in 43 B.C.E. (by order of Marc Antony)

Life coincided with the fall of the Roman Republic

Republic→ Empire

struggle for power

Orator, lawyer, politician, and philosopher

Major Works

One of the most complete collections

His works systematized rhetoric

Three main types

Philosophic Writings

Political Speeches

Letters (to and from)

Political influence on the works

Speeches and Letters

~60 speeches left

Reflect Roman time period and Cicero’s philosophy

Used to reach a political goal

Revisions of original speeches

~900 letters to and from Cicero

Focus on the dealings of politics

Philosophic Writings

The Brutus

Attic (formal/dignified) v Asiatic (dramatic) Style

History of Greek and Roman oratory and orators

Some general information on oration

De Inventione

“stasis” theory, 6 part speech

questions or issues addressed in the invention

systematized rhetorical speech

De Partitione

arrangement

type of speech and audience

De Oratore

training and role of the orator

culmination of his work

Contribution to the Field of Rhetoric

Cicero provides the most thorough and complete distillation of classical thought on Rhetoric.

Stasis Theory→ the necessary questions

Conjectural: what happened?

Definitional: what type of thing is it?

Translative/Procedural: how should it be dealt with?

Qualitative: what are the legal/equitable remedies?

The 6-part speech

Exordium/ Narratio/ Divisio/ Confirmatio/ Refutatio/ Peroratio

Chapter 1, 2, or/ and 3 Quote Explication

Chapter 2

“In a fight, each disputant tries to win. In an argument, they try to win over an audience.” (Heinrichs 15)

This is where you need great rhetoric. There is a difference between fighting and arguing, arguments versus blame-shifting. One must not win by only doing so you are simply “argument by the stick” You succeed an argument if you persuade your audience, “you win a fight when you dominate the enemy.” If one takes out their aggression on the other person, it becomes a fight. Heinrichs with this quote, pushes for a planned argument. He later in the book talks about three goals for persuading people, stimulate your audience’s emotions, change their opinion, and get it to act. You can’t just jump into an argument unprepared, unless you are willing to loose.

Chapter 4, 5, or/ and 6 Quote Explication

Chapter 6

“Virtue means more Nelson Mandela than Polly Purebread.” (Heinrichs 58)

First thing is, who is Polly Purebread. Well Polly Purebread is from a cartoon. She is the love interest of Underdog. (I had to look that up) I have not seen that cartoon, but given the two names Nelson is more credible than Polly can ever be. By this quote I believe that Heinrichs greatly gives power to the tool of credibility, more specifically ethos. But it is not just the fact that Polly is a cartoon, regarding ethos one much have a great personal branding, confidence in delivery and credible sources. It is not just in the name, but in everything.

Chapter 7, 8, 9, or/ and 10 Quote Explication

 Chapter 7

“Craft does not entail looking up decisions in books, or sticking to universal truths. It’s an instinct for making right decisions on every occasion.” (Heinrichs 70)

The craft of rhetoric is not something you can learn from a Dummy’s book. You have to learn the history to understand. Understand the history and its influences. Once you do you can make up the needed steps and requirements for every argument that is needed. It is not like witchcraft, there is no potion book, it is like sports, you have to try and try to get it right.

Chapter 11, 12, 13, or/ and 14 Quote Explication  

Chapter 11

“If she refers to “kids these days,” it is extremely unlikely that your audience enjoys rap music.” (Heinrichs 103)

This is important. It is a similar to a lesson I learned in my Consumer Behavior class, KNOW THY CUSTOMER. This is very similar to what I had to do in my job at Windsor. Now, Windsor is a girly clothing store for women/girl/juniors. If I had a girl come in wearing all black, most likely Goth, I would not offer her a pink dress. It is important to know who you are talking to, to make your rhetoric more effective.

Chapter 15, 16, or/ and 17 Quote Explication

“Never argue with a fool. People might not know the difference.” (Heinrich 169)

Henrich goes on to explain that, “When Aristotle said that the better choice is easier to argue, he clearly wasn’t thinking of debate with a moron. The most common stupidity in argument, aside from the gratuitous insult, is the arguer’s failure to recognize his own logical fallacies.” I believe that he means one can not win in certain cases. The example of the women repeating over and over again the fact that she doesn’t want her taxes raised is an example of how one can be a fool. Every time I argued with my little sister I got no where and my mom would shout at me saying it was ridiculous to continue arguing when we all know she wont give in. In the end, I was the fool. 

Ethos, Pathos, Logos

There are certain ways rhetoric can be used. There are three forms of rhetoric, logos, pathos and ethos. Each form is used to target. Logos is logical or fact based appeal. It has the means to persuade by the use of reasoning. Ethos refers to the trustworthiness of the source. So if you want medical advice on something, you would probably believe the doctor more than me. Pathos is attracted toward your emotions. It pulls at your heartstrings to evoke an action or opinion from you. Back to political rhetoric, these three forms of rhetoric are seen on television by our presidential candidates. Trump has brought out one person whose daughter was shot by an “illegal immigrant” to evoke the emotion of anger, thus agreeing with his statements of building a wall. Bernie Sanders uses ethos, his credibility and trustworthiness. He states how he was bought by wall street and super PAC’s and is always comparing himself to Hillary Clinton. Hillary Clinton uses a lot of logos. Her speeches are well written and she tends to use a lot more facts in her speeches than the other two candidates. And here is the breakdown of what is rhetoric along with a unveiling of how the presidential candidates want you to think.

Dramatic Pentad 

 

Kenneth
Burke

  • DRAMATISM
  • “… they viewed language primarily as a mode of action rather than as a mode of knowledge, though the two emphases are by no means mutually exclusive.” (Burke 330)

Taking dramatic approach to communication what are people doing and why.

Refers to dramatic pentad

  • DRAMATIC PENTAD
  • A set of basic terms, identified by Kenneth Burke, through which people most commonly discuss human motives and actions.

ACT – Refers to all human action

SCENE – Refers to contexts–physical or abstract–that have bearing on actions

AGENT – Refers to those people (or entities) that perform actions

AGENCY – Refers to the means or vehicle by which given actions are performed

PURPOSE – Explicitly names the motives of given agents (Burton 4)